The most common complication encountered during TNKase therapy is bleeding. Should serious bleeding (not controlled by local pressure) occur, any concomitant heparin or antiplatelet agents should be discontinued immediately and treated appropriately.
In clinical studies of TNKase, patients were treated with both aspirin and heparin. Heparin may contribute to the bleeding risks associated with TNKase. The safety of the use of TNKase with other antiplatelet agents has not been adequately studied. Intramuscular injections and nonessential handling of the patient should be avoided for the first few hours following treatment with TNKase.
The risk of bleeding may be increased in the following conditions and should be weighed against the anticipated benefits: recent major surgery, cerebrovascular disease, recent gastrointestinal or genitourinary bleeding, recent trauma, hypertension, acute pericarditis, subacute bacterial endocarditis, hemostatic defects, severe hepatic dysfunction, pregnancy, diabetic hemorrhagic retinopathy or other hemorrhagic ophthalmic conditions, septic thrombophlebitis or occluded AV cannula at seriously infected site, advanced age, patients currently receiving oral anticoagulants, recent administration of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors, and any other condition in which bleeding constitutes a significant hazard or would be particularly difficult to manage because of its location.
The use of thrombolytics can increase the risk of thrombo-embolic events in patients with high likelihood of left heart thrombus, such as patients with mitral stenosis or atrial fibrillation.
Cholesterol embolism has been reported rarely in patients treated with all types of thrombolytic agents; the true incidence is unknown. This serious condition, which can be lethal, is also associated with invasive vascular procedures (e.g., cardiac catheterization, angiography, vascular surgery) and/or anticoagulant therapy.
Coronary thrombolysis may result in arrhythmias associated with reperfusion. It is recommended that anti-arrhythmic therapy for bradycardia and/or ventricular irritability be available when TNKase is administered.
Use with Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI)
In patients with large ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, physicians should choose either thrombolysis or PCI as the primary treatment strategy for reperfusion.